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Electrical and magnetic measurements are widely used in many branches of industry, energy, agriculture, scientific research, everyday life of people. This kind of measurements includes a big number of measurable quantities and types of measuring instruments. The uniformity of electrical measurements is provided by traceability to the national primary standards, the majority of them is created and stored in NSC “Institute of Metrology”.

The main direction of creation of standards in this kind of measurements is the use of quantum effects and fundamental physical constants, what allows providing the highest accuracy and stability of reproduction of electrical quantities. These standards include the standards of the units of electromotive force (DC voltage) - volt - on quantum Josephson effect, electrical resistance – ohm – on quantum Hall effect, magnetic induction – tesla – on the effect of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). These standards exactly together with the standard of time and frequency form the basic system of standards in the field of electrical, magnetic and radiotechnical measurements.

In NSC “Institute of Metrology” there are developed two quantum standards – volt and tesla, and also the first set of apparatus of the primary standard of ohm (DETU 08-02-98) which stores the size of ohm and transfers it to the numerous measuring instruments. The development of the system of reproduction on the Hall effect is planned by the Program of further development of standard base.

National primary standard of the unit of magnetic induction – tesla (DETU 08-01-96) uses the connection between the values of magnetic induction of the constant field (B) and the frequency of precession of hydrogen nucleus (protons) (f) in magnetic field with the help of fundamental physical constant – gyromagnetic proton ratio.

National primary standard of electromagnetic force and DC voltage – volt (DETU 08-03-07) is based on the multiple-unit matrix of Josephson contacts and includes cryogenic complex, working at the temperature of liquid helium; UHF-generator, stabilized on the frequency of national primary standard of units of time and frequency; group of normal elements. According to its characteristics the standard meets the requirements of the modern world level.

National standard of ohm should be based on two autonomous systems: system of unit reproduction of electrical resistance on the basis of quantum Hall effect and the system of storage and scaling of the unit of electrical resistance on the bases of standard measures of electrical resistance. As mentioned above, the second system is created and exploited (DETU 08-02-98), except that there are created transitional measures of resistance for obtaining and storage of “Hall’s Ohm”. In future it is planned to create the unit of reproduction of the unit on the basis of Hall effect.

For storage and exploitation of primary standards in the field of electricity there is created the necessary unique engineer infrastructure which provides the temperature stabilization of the rooms and protection of the standards from the influences of electromagnetic and mechanical interferences.